The languages of Bolivia include Spanish, at least 30 indigenous languages, most prominently Quechua, Aymara, and Tupi Guaraní, and other languages such as Plautdietsch spoken by descendants of immigrants. All of the indigenous languages and Spanish are official languages of the state according to the 2009 Constitution. Spanish and Quechua are spoken primarily in the Andes region; Aymara is mainly spoken in the Altiplano around Lake Titicaca, and Guarani in the southeast on the border with Paraguay.
The climate in Bolivia and weather in Bolivia vary as greatly as the country's many regions, although when speaking of weather, Bolivians typically refer only to two seasons (the rainy season and dry season) as usually there is no gradual entry into either winter or summer. Changes in temperatures and the weather in Bolivia are typically as brusque as the changes in topography from one region to the next. Temperatures depend primarily on elevation.
In Bolivia, the main meal is lunch: most workers try to go home to eat during the week. A proper Bolivian lunch consists of soup, a main course and possibly even dessert. The most important element in Bolivian food is the potato: it is common to see potatoes in some form served with almost every meal. Pasta and rice are also favorites. As for meat, Bolivians eat a lot more pork than people in the United States or Canada. Chicken and beef are also common, and you’ll see the occasional restaurant offering goat, llama or cuy (Guinea pig!).
Bolivia, officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia (Quechua: Bulivya Mamallaqta, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Aymara: "Wuliwya Suyu"), is a landlocked country in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, Chile by the south west, and Peru by the west.
Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called Upper Peru and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Bolivia has struggled through periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic woes.
Bolivia is a Democratic Republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a Medium Human Development Index score, and a poverty level around 60%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common and all three, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
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