From wikipedia about Sudan
Sudan officially the Republic of the Sudan
(جمهورية السودان, Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān) is a country in North Africa. It is also considered part of the Middle East politically and geographically. It is bordered by Egypt
to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea
to the east, South Sudan
to the south, the Central African Republic
to the southwest, Chad
to the west and Libya
to the northwest. While the population of Sudan
predominately descends from both indigenous African groups and Arabs, today most tribes in the country have been Arabized and Arabic and Arab culture predominates. Over 97 percent of the population of Sudan
adheres to Islam. The Nile, generally regarded as the world's longest river, divides the country between east and west sides. Collins, Robert O (2008). A History of Modern Sudan
. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York City). ISBN 9780521858205.
The people of Sudan
have a long history extending from antiquity which is intertwined with the history of Egypt
, with which it was united politically over several periods. After gaining independence from Egypt
and the United Kingdom
in 1956, Sudan
suffered seventeen years of civil war during the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972) followed by ethnic, religious and economic conflicts between the Muslim Arab and Arabized northern Sudanese and the mostly animist and Christian Nilotes of Southern Sudan
. Shami, Seteney Khalid; Herrera, Linda (1999). Between Field and Text, "Ethical Dilemmas of Research Among Sudanese in Egypt: Producing Knowledge about the Public and the Private" by Anita Hausermann Fabos. American University in Cairo Press (Cairo). p. 100. ISBN 978-9-774-24548-0. United Nations Environment Programme (2007). Sudan
— Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (Nairobi). p. 35. ISBN 978-9-280-72702-9. This led to the Second Sudanese Civil War in 1983. Because of continuing political and military struggles, Sudan
was seized in a bloodless coup d'état by colonel Omar al-Bashir in 1989, who thereafter proclaimed himself President of Sudan
. The civil war ended with the signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement which granted autonomy to what was then the southern region of the country. Following a referendum held in January 2011, South Sudan
seceded on 9 July 2011 with the consent of Sudan's President al-Bashir.
A member of the United Nations, Sudan
also maintains membership with the African Union, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as serving as an observer in World Trade Organization. Its capital is Khartoum, which serves as the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation, while Omdurman is the largest city. Officially a federal presidential representative democratic republic, the politics of Sudan
are widely considered by the international community to take place within an authoritarian system due to the control of the National Congress Party (NCP) of the judiciary, executive and legislative branches of government. The New York Times. 16 March 1996. p. 4.
On 4 March 2009, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir, the current President of Sudan
, on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity related to the ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan
. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state ever indicted by the ICC. Staff writer (4 March 2009).
Sudan then achieved great economic growth by implementing macroeconomic reforms and finally ended the civil war by adopting a new constitution in 2005 with rebel groups in the south, granting them limited autonomy that was followed by a referendum about independence in January 2011. Rich in natural resources such as petroleum and crude oil, Sudan's economy is amongst the fastest growing in the world.
However, after an Islamic legal code was introduced on a national level, the ruling National Congress (NCP) established themselves as the sole political party in the state and has since supported the use of recruited Arab militias in guerrilla warfare, such as in the ongoing conflict in Darfur. Since then thousands of people have been displaced and killed, and the need for humanitarian care in Darfur has attracted worldwide attention. The conflict has since been described as a genocide. Press release (14 July 2008).. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
Sudan has also been the subject of severe sanctions due to alleged ties with Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda. Staff writer (13 March 2007)..
A referendum took place in Southern Sudan
from 9 to 15 January 2011, on whether the region should remain a part of Sudan
or be independent. Vuni, Isaac (12 July 2007). BBC News 14 January 2011 Retrieved 26 January 2011