Jordan

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Cities Jordan  
Country information country code: JO
continent: Asia
capital: Amman
languages: Arabic

EU membership: no
NATO membership: no

GSM: 900/1800
GPS: 31 00 N, 36 00 E
electricity: 230V/50Hz

currency:
Jordanian Dinar: JOD
1JOD = 1.411 USD
1JOD = 1.115 EUR

phone code: +962-6

Travel advices and warnings Jordan
Tourism Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Jordan's economy. In 2010, 8 million tourists from various countries visited Jordan, with tourist receipts amounting to about 3. 5 billion dollars. An additional $1 billion was earned through medical tourism to the kingdom.

Its major tourist attractions include visiting historical sites, like the worldwide famous Petra (UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985, and one of New Seven Wonders of the World), the Jordan River, Mount Nebo, Madaba, numerous medieval mosques and churches, and unspoiled natural locations (as Wadi Rum and Jordan's northern mountainous region in general), as well as observing cultural and religious sites and traditions.
Culture The culture of Jordan is based on Arabic and Islamic elements with significant Western influence. The Jordanian Kingdom had always been the intersection of the three continents of the ancient world and always seemed to have a form of diversity at any given point due to its location. Notable aspects of the culture include the music of Jordan as well as an interest in sports, particularly football and basketball as well as other imported sports mainly from western Europe and the US.
Cuisine Jordanian cuisine shares many of the characteristics of Middle Eastern cooking but the inclusion of freshly made, local yogurt and cheese adds a twist to the menu. Aubergines, chickpeas, lentils and beans turn up in many of the dishes and rice and khoubs (flat Arabic bread) are staples. Most restaurants have a mixed menu including Arabic and European dishes. Alcohol is served in most restaurants and bars, except during the fasting month of Ramadan (non-Muslim nationals can drink alcohol only in hotels during Ramadan).
Language Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, al Mamlaka al Urduniya al Hashemiyah. 5, 544, 000. National or official language: Standard Arabic. Literacy rate: 71%–80%. Immigrant languages: Egyptian Spoken Arabic (10, 000), Greek, Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic (500, 000), North Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic (200, 000), Northern Kurdish (4, 000), South Azerbaijani (4, 000). Also includes people from Pakistan, Philippines (5, 000). Information mainly from W. Fischer and O. Jastrow 1980; B. Ingham 1982; T. Johnstone 1967; T. Sebeok 1963. Blind population: 9, 000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 240, 155. Deaf institutions: 2. The number of individual languages listed for Jordan is 10. Of those, all are living languages.
Climate Most of Jordan has a desert climate with little or no rainfall and summer temperatures soaring especially high in July and August, the hottest and driest months of the year. Amman and the Jordan Valley have more pleasant weather during spring and autumn, when days are sunny and temperatures moderate. During winter the weather can be extremely cold, especially in Amman, accompanied by snow, rain and wind.
Currency The Jordanian dinar, denoted by JOD, is the official currency of Jordan. Subdivided into 100 piastres or fils, the JOD circulates both as coins and banknotes. On July 1, 1950, the dinar replaced the Palestinian Pound. In past years, the Central Bank of Jordan supported a fixed exchange rate between the Jordanian dinar and the US dollar.

Amman, Jordan

Sunday 25, July

From wikipedia about Jordan

Jordan (: Arabic: الأردن, Al-'Urdun), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea. Jordan's only port is at its south-western tip, at the Gulf of Aqaba, which is shared with Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Over half of Jordan is covered by the Arabian Desert. However, the western part of Jordan is arble land and wooded ever-green forestry. Jordan is part of the Fertile Crescent. The capital city is Amman.

Modern Jordan was founded in 1921, and it was recognized by the League of Nations as a state under the British mandate in 1922 known as The Emirate of Transjordan. In 1946, Jordan joined the United Nations as an independent sovereign state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

In antiquity, the present day Jordan was in the heart of the earlier civilizations which prospered in the Fertile Crescent including the Babylonian and the Canaanites. Later, Jordan became a home for several ancient kingdoms including: the kingdom of Edom, the kingdom of Moab, the kingdom of Ammon and the prominent Nabataean kingdom of Petra. However, across different eras of history, parts of the country laid under the control of some regional powers including Pharaonic Egypt during their wars with the Babylonian and the Hittites; and for discrete periods of times by Israelites who were taken under the captivity of the Babylonian, and who were later defeated by the Moabites as recorded in Mesha stele. Furthermore, and due to its strategic location in the middle of the ancient world, Jordan was also controlled by the ancient empires of Greece, the Persians, the Romans and later by the Byzantine. Yet, the Nabataean managed to create their independent kingdom which covered most parts of modern Jordan and beyond, for some centuries, before it was taken by the still expanding Roman empire. However, apart from Petra, the Romans maintained the prosperity of most of the ancient cities in Jordan which enjoyed a sort of city-state autonomy under the umbrella of the alliance of the Decapolis. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Jordan came to be controlled by the Ghassanid Arab kingdom. In the seventh century, and due to its proximity to Damascus, Jordan became a heartland for the Arabic Islamic Empire and therefore secured several centuries of stability and prosperity, which allowed the coining of its current Arabic Islamic identity. In the 11th century, Jordan witnessed a phase of instability, as it became a battlefield for the Crusade wars which ended with defeat by the Ayyubids. Jordan suffered also from the Mongol attacks which were blocked by Mamluks. In 1516, It became part of the Ottoman Empire and it remained so until 1918, when the Army of the Great Arab Revolt took over, and secured the present day Jordan with the help and support of Jordan local tribes.

As witness to Jordan's rich history, the Nabataean civilization left many magnificent archaeological sites at Petra, which is considered one of the New Seven Wonders of the World as well as been recognized by the UNESCO as a world Heritage site. Beside Petra, other civilizations also left their archaeological fingerprints on Jordan including the Hellenistic and the Roman through their ruins in Decapolis cities of Gerasa (Jerash), Gadara (Umm Qais), Amman(Amman), Capitolias (Beit Ras), Raphana, Pella and Arabella (Irbid) and the Byzantine site of Um er-Rasas (a UNESCO World Heritage Site). The Arabic Islamic Empire also left its unique architectural signature which is embodied by desert palaces including Qasr Mshatta, Qasr al Hallabat and Qasr Amra which is recognized as World Heritage; in addition to the castles of Ajloun and Karak which combine the Crusade, Ayyubid and Mamluk eras all together. The more recent Ottomans left some landmarks including several mosques, tombs, small railway stations and castles.

Modern Jordan is predominantly urbanized. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" by the 2010 Human Development Report. Furthermore, The Kingdom has been classified as an emerging market with a free market economy by the CIA World Fact Book. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States went into effect in December, 2001 phased out duties on nearly all goods and services between the two countries. On the other hand, Jordan enjoyed "advanced status" with the European Union since December 2010 as well as being a member of the Euro-Mediterranean free trade area. Jordan has more Free Trade Agreements than any other country in the region. It has a moderate "pro-Western" policy with very close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom, and became a major non-NATO ally of the United States in 1996. Yet, Jordan is a founding member of both the Arab League, and the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Recently, Jordan has been invited to Join the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The Jordanian Government is one of only three members of the 22 state Arab League to have diplomatic relations with Israel, the others being the Egyptian and Palestinian governments. Jordan is a member of the WTO, the AFESD, the Arab Parliament, the AIDMO, the AMF,.
Description above from the Wikipedia, licensed under CC-BY-SA full list of contributors here.
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